Vascular Doppler: A Valuable Tool for Monitoring and Managing Chronic Venous Insufficiency

Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI)

Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is associated with pain, discomfort, swelling, and ulcers in the legs. When the valves in the veins of the legs start malfunctioning, it hampers the return of venous blood to the heart, resulting in the backflow of blood into the legs. This leads to blood pooling and increased pressure in the legs. 

CVI generally occurs in people above 50 years of age, with the risk increasing with increasing age. Overall, about 1 in 20 adults are affected by CVI. (Source:

Vascular Doppler and Photoplethymosgraphy (PPG) to calculate Venous reflux study in the Diagnosis of CVI

Vascular Doppler assessment of refilling time in a superficial saphenous vein is a non-invasive procedure that can provide anatomic and hemodynamic information about the venous circulation of the lower extremities in real-time. 

Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a noninvasive test that uses a light-emitting diode and a photoelectric cell to detect changes in skin blood volume. PPG is also known as light reflection rheography and works on the principle that as the volume of blood in the skin changes, so too does the amount of light reflected back to the sensor. During exercise, the amount of blood in the skin of the lower limb decreases as a result of venous emptying secondary to the action of the calf muscle pump. By placement of the PPG probe over the skin of the lower limb, the blood volume of the skin can be semi-quantified and relates primarily to the effectiveness of the pump mechanism in clearing the leg of venous blood. The time taken for the skin to refill with blood after exercise is known as the refilling time (RT). In health, RT is related to arterial inflow and, in the presence of venous disease, also to the presence and severity of deep and superficial lower limb venous reflux, 

Early diagnosis of CVI using vascular Doppler leads to early intervention. Vascular Doppler helps not only in the diagnosis of CVI but also in periodic monitoring of the efficacy of the treatment instituted.

Monitoring Treatment Results

Vascular Doppler is an invaluable tool in monitoring the progress of treatment interventions. The effectiveness of therapies such as compression stockings, lifestyle modifications, and more invasive interventions like endovenous ablation can be evaluated using a vascular Doppler. By providing objective data, Doppler ultrasound enables both patients and doctors to make informed decisions.

Kody Vascular Doppler

Kody Medical Electronics offers a range of bidirectional vascular Dopplers including the BIDOP ES100V3, SMARTDOP 45, SMARTDOP XT 6 PORT, SMARTDOP XT 14 PORT, and DVM 4500. All these instruments provide real-time information on blood flow through blood vessels. While the BIDOP ES100V3, and SMARTDOP 45 are simple handheld or pocket editions, the SMARTDOP XT 6 PORT, SMARTDOP XT 14 PORT, and DVM 4500 are more sophisticated with computer interface and better reporting of parameters. 

Using any of these instruments, physicians can effectively diagnose CVI in patients and monitor their ongoing treatment periodically. This allows modifying the treatment where required, leading to an overall improvement in the patient’s quality of life.

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